2016 Zoetis Infectious Disease Symposium - Audience Q&A from NAVC

2016 Zoetis Infectious Disease Symposium - Audience Q&A from NAVC

The following are the speaker responses to questions from the audience during the Symposium sponsored by Zoetis held Monday, January 18, 2016 at NAVC in Orlando, FL.

The opinions expressed in these answers are those of the speakers and do not necessarily reflect the official label recommendations and point of view of the company or companies that manufacture and/or market any of the pharmaceutical agents, products, or services mentioned.

Session 1: Canine Influenza Virus: Outbreaks, Prevention, Vaccination – What You Need to Know NOW!

Katharine F. Lunn, BVMS, MS, PhD, DACVIM (SAIM)
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC

  1. Does the mortality rate for CIV differ from that of other canine respiratory disease complex diseases?
    Dr. Lunn: I struggle to answer this question because it is difficult to find specific mortality data for the various pathogens involved in CIRD. Many dogs with CIRD are probably infected with more than one pathogen. If you compare CIV with canine respiratory coronavirus, for example, I would expect higher mortality with CIV because it affects the lungs and lower respiratory tract, thus increasing the risk of secondary bacterial pneumonia, whereas coronavirus is mainly restricted to the upper airways and trachea. On the other hand, mortality from Strep zooepidemicus may be higher than mortality from CIV. Because we tend to mainly hear about outbreaks of CIV in hospitals or shelters, where there may be overcrowding, exposure to other pathogens, concurrent diseases, and other stressors, we may not really know the true mortality for CIV. We don’t tend to hear about the dog that just had a mild cough (or no cough) at home and got better with no further investigation. So far there is little published peer-reviewed data that truly evaluates mortality and morbidity.
  2. If you have multiple exposed dogs isolated together and one gets signs, do you start the clock over on the others?
    Dr. Lunn: If you can separate sick dogs from exposed but not sick dogs, the clock on the sick dogs starts on the date that you house that group in isolation. If you have a separate group of exposed (but not sick) dogs that are housed together, you would need to keep them quarantined for 10 days. If signs develop in any of that group, that clock starts for the whole group when the last dog starts to show signs. This is because the other dogs in the group may not have been infected when first put into quarantine, but if one of their group develops clinical infection, all the others will then be newly exposed. If exposed (not sick) and sick dogs are all isolated together, the clock on all the non-sick dogs in the group starts when the last one starts to show signs. The sick dogs in that group could be released from isolation 21 days after their signs started – but the non-sick dogs that became sick in isolation or quarantine would be on a different clock. This assumes you are dealing with H3N2. For H3N8 you can probably go with a 14-day isolation.
  3. With regards to the two vaccines, have any confirmed influenza H3N2 patients been previously vaccinated with the original H3N8 vaccine? Do Merck and Zoetis suspect cross protection? 
    Dr. Lunn: I don’t know if there is any data about dogs vaccinated against H3N8 that subsequently got infected with H3N2. I would not expect cross protection. The two strains are pretty different. If you know there is an outbreak in your area, I would not rely on the H3N8 vaccine to protect against H3N2, or vice versa.

Session 2: Canine Parainfluenza Virus: A Forgotten Pathogen?

John Ellis, DVM, PhD, DACVP, DACVIM
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada

  1. What are your thoughts on the oral Bordetella vaccine?
    Dr. Ellis: I refer you to the following article for this answer: Ellis, JA. How well do vaccines for Bordetella bronchiseptica work in dogs? A critical review of the literature 1977‒2014. The Veterinary Journal. 2015;204:5-16.

Session 3: Lyme Disease: Optimizing Prevention Through Vaccination

Richard Goldstein, DVM, DACVIM (SAIM), DECVIM-CA
The Animal Medical Center, New York, NY

Richard T. Marconi, PhD
School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA

  1. Does the subset of OspC match up in all regions where Lyme is endemic?
    Dr. Marconi: Focusing specifically on North America, the answer is yes. For example, the OspC types that dominate in the Upper Midwest overlap with the OspC types from the East Coast. We know a bit less about the OspC types associated with canine infections in Europe and other endemic regions of the world. Several research groups, including my own, are actively investigating this.
  2. Whose OspA did you use for the test?  
    Dr. Marconi: By test, I assume you mean what is the identity of the OspA in the “vaccine” [VANGUARD crLyme]. In brief, OspA is generally well conserved in North America and the OspA used in the vaccine consists of a sequence that is well represented in North America strains like the B31 strain from New York.
  3. If currently on a different Lyme vaccine yearly can we just switch to the new brand [VANGUARD crLyme] or do we need to do another two-shot series to establish full immunity?
    Dr. Goldstein: Yes, the new crLyme vaccine needs to be boostered initially—so given twice even if a dog is already vaccinated. Without that you are really only benefiting from the OspA portion of the vaccine and not the new chimeric OspC portion.
  4. How does the new crLyme vaccine affect SNAP tests or quant C6 testing?
    Dr. Goldstein: It has absolutely no effect of the IDEXX tests. Zero.
  5. Have there been many vaccine breaks before? In which vaccine?
    Dr. Goldstein: I think many have experienced breaks, especially in heavily endemic areas, yes.
  6. If a dog has been getting an older Lyme vaccine every year what is the protocol to switch over to crLyme?
    Dr. Goldstein: See question #3 above.
  7. What is the preventable fraction of the new vaccine [VANGUARD crLyme] compared with the current vaccine?
    Dr. Goldstein: We don’t have good harsh field studies really on any of the vaccines to show this in the field. This vaccine [VANGUARD crLyme] showed 100% protection experimentally but so do other vaccines, as it is a question of how many ticks are placed on a dog and when during the waning of the OspA titer is the challenge done.
  8. You say Lyme is in the East along the coast. I practice in the Atlanta area. Do I need to start vaccinating for Lyme?
    Dr. Goldstein: I think you need to start with screening. There is definitely Lyme in the Atlanta area, especially in the Northern suburbs. I would screen every dog in your practice and try to analyze the data and see who is turning positive and concentrate on those areas or that lifestyle first. I am sure some dogs need to be vaccinated in your practice but I’m just not sure if all do—and the only way to tell is screening. 


 

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